[Music] you started with as a community organizer and so and rose to be

president you understand the power of moving people along even people who aren't necessarily on your bus when you

start talk to us a little bit about how you think of movements around the world and the power of those now and what

leaders can learn from them well I'd make a couple of observations number one is that most big change most human

progress is driven by young people who don't know any better and figure why can't we do something different

old people get comfortable or cranky or protective of their status or set in their ways there is a reason why if you

look at for example here in the United States the civil rights movement the leaders of those movements were in their

20s dr. King was 26 when he started 39 when he was killed and if you if you canvassed the world oftentimes that is

the the impetus people asking in in ways that I think are familiar to many not why not but or not why but why not

why do things have to be the way they are so so that's point number one that that young people I think can make an

enormous difference number two is that because most of us now either live in democracies or countries that purport to

be democracies because we we have won the the battle of ideas that says governments

are our common efforts have to be rooted in the legitimacy of people there is more power than ever in people being

able to band together and collectively push for initiatives that are going to make change in their lives that's

something that for most of human history was unimaginable that is one of the amazing transitions

that has taken place and you will notice that even in autocracies today there is the at least the pretense of democracy

because people believe that governments that are rooted in people are more legitimate and we that's a battle we won

and now have to make real wherever we can that's point number two point number three is simple math in most places if

you want to get something done whether it's a smarter climate change policy or health care for people or more funding

for girls education you've got to have a majority of people supporting it you got to have votes you have to have the

allocation of resources and that requires mobilization and a game of addition rather than subtraction so and

the fourth point I would make would be the internet now has turbocharged the capacity for us to develop movements in

ways that we had not imagined before now the last thing I'll say so that I don't sound like I'm in the still new US

Senate and filibustering is is I guess a smaller point but a profound one that I tried to reinforce with my staff at

every level of my public work and and continue to do to this day I actually thinks

organizing mobilizing starting movements starts with a story and you can't create a story that moves large numbers of

people unless you are able to listen and hear to the story of the person next to you the story of your neighbors the

stories of your co-workers the stories of your community the story of people who are not like you and so one of one

of the things that I think is is important is for us to learn how to listen to each other and learn how it is

that we came to be who we are think the way we do because that understanding of other people's stories is how you end up

ultimately forging bonds and creating the glue that creates movements mandi in India it started with his understanding

of India's story and his own story and seeing Indians in South Africa discriminated against and recognizing

that there were traditions and myths and a power in those stories that ended up driving out the most powerful empire on

earth it wasn't guns and increasingly that will be the case and certainly that will

be the case if we're able if we want to move forward the sustainable development goals that we're talking about is we've

got to be able to tell a story not only to big donors or politicians but also to for example people here in the United

States who may feel like look I've got my own problems why should I be worrying about somebody on the other side of the

world you have to say when we got into philanthropy and particularly studied global health we were stunned at the

progress we had we'd had no idea and it's it's kind of amazing if you ask even very well-educated people you know

what's happened with vaccinations what's happened with HIV they don't know the the positive story and a little bit the

news is always gonna focus on the setbacks because that's what happened that day the gradual progress doesn't

fit that paradigm and even people who raise money for these causes I have to say you know sometimes even some of the

material we create is talking about the piece that remains as though it it it's never improved do you have any thoughts

on how we get this more positive sense of progress going and what how we would get that word out well look you're

talking to somebody who for seven years tried to get the word happen and nobody at least about 40% of country didn't

believe me until I was gone and then suddenly they believed it so with that caveat I'd make

a couple observations one you're right bill there is the the nature of the media and maybe just the human brain is

to fasten on what's wrong not on what's right and I'm not sure we're gonna be able to change that right visual

displays of a fire are much more interesting than just a building sitting there and so the fire is gonna make the

news the building sitting there nicely and people are walking their dogs in front of it and stuff that will not make

the news so so I don't think that we can count on conventional media necessarily to spread the word this is though where

the power of the Internet has not I think been harnessed the way it needs to be particularly when we think about

young people and young audiences Malia and Sasha consume information differently than I do and I think that

those of us who've been involved with policy work are still putting out these reports with pie charts and this and

that and that's not interesting to them but stories and visual representations of progress can go viral there's a

hunger for it it's just that we don't systematically think about it and and so I think when the three of us we're

talking a while back I mentioned that one of the one of the areas that I'm deeply interested in is how do we build

serve in a digital platform whereby people can go to find out what's happening that is moving the progress on

issues and then activates them because I heard somebody I think maybe Trevor saying an

important point one of I'm very interested in how online communities can move offline how this incredible power

to convene through hashtags and tweets and this and then the other eventually leads to people meeting each other and

talking to each other and I think that we have not fully tapped that as a way of spreading the word about progress

that has been made I also think it is important for us to put some friendly pressure on leaders to tell good stories

and to make sure that we don't that we aren't so rigid in our partisanship or ideologies that we are not willing to

acknowledge and share when somebody who might be of a different political persuasion has done something really

good even if it runs contrary to our short-term political interests I mean I always used to say as as big as the

differences were between me and my president predecessor George W Bush that what his administration initiated with

PEPFAR was a singularly important achievement that we needed to sustain and build on and I didn't think that

somehow had attracted for me to say that somebody from another political party did something really smart and really

good and deserve credit for it and and and I feel as if these days with within our political circles that's a hard

thing for people to bring themselves to do [Applause]

[Music] one of the things that bill and I had the great privilege of doing when you

were in the White House late in your presidency was spending a little bit of casual time on a Saturday night and your

daughters were in and out of your home Willie and Sasha and you've been to our house earlier this summer and saw Rory

and Phoebe two of our three in and out of our house our daughter Jen is here in the front row

tell me about Jen's like thanks mom that's our job to embarrass you that's what we do job done right there but you

know Jen's about the age of your girls a little bit older but how have you and

Michelle thought about talking to your children about being leaders in the world and taking up this mantle of what

needs to be done in the world well it what we've tried to communicate their entire lives is that each of us has

responsibilities when they were small the responsibilities were small my say when you want to go potty and then as

you get older your responsibilities grow and and but but part of what we I think try to communicate is is that being

responsible is an enormous privilege that's what marks you as a fully grown human is that you that other people rely

on you that you have influence that you can make your mark that if you do something well that that will improve

other people's lives that the kinds of values that we've tried to instill many of them your basic homespun values like

kindness and consideration and empathy and hard work that those are our tools by which you can

shape the world around you in a way that feels good and so what we've what we've tried to encourage is that the sense

that it's not somebody else's job it's your job and I think that is that that's a epic that they've embraced now they

will choose to participate in in different ways because they have different temperaments and different

strengths I think one of the mistakes that we sometimes make is to think that there's just one way of making a

difference or being involved you know if you are a brilliant engineer you don't have to make a speech you can create an

app that allows an amplification or the scaling up of some something that is really powerful if you are somebody who

likes to care for people you you don't have to go out and lead the protest march you can mentor some kids or work

at a at a local health clinic that is going to make a difference so there are a lot of different ways in which to make

a contribution and we try to emphasize that that to them as well and then the third thing that we try to try to

encourage is what I mentioned in my earlier remarks which is that you have to be persistent I I always tell people

that my early work as a community organizer in Chicago taught me an incredible amount but I didn't set the

world on fire you know I got some public parks for communities that needed them I started some after-school programs we

we helped set up a job training program for people who had been laid off of work but that those communities weren't

suddenly transformed that they still had huge problems but I took that experience and then I was able to build on it and I

think so often we get impatient because change does not look as if sometimes it's not as discernable or mediate or

impactful as we had imagined in our in our minds and we get disappointed and we get frustrated and for for me by the way

that's advice in life and not just in social change I assume occasionally there was a bug in the software

Melvyn every now and then every once in a while you know and how we got a patch it again this is this is annoying but

but that's how I was I wasn't known for my patience bill did you have one yeah so this week at part of the reason we're

all in New York was the United Nations is meeting and you know some of these global institutions were created right

after World War two World Bank World Health Organization UNICEF they've been key partners for many of these causes

and yet there is definitely a cynicism about their bureaucracy their efficiency and their ability to change in fact very

few exceptions like Global Fund and gobby we haven't had any new one so over the next 10 or 20 years do you think

these global institutions in terms of reform or creating new ones it for pandemics and climate change can they

step up to play the role we need them to play well let me first of all say that the biggest problems we confront

no one nation is going to be able to solve on its own not even a nation as powerful as the United States of America

there are times during my presidency where I was attacked for not claiming that we could go on our own as if that

was an expression of weakness no I I believe that the United States is in fact an indispensable nation and that

many of the initiatives and much of the progress that we've made could not have been done unless we underwrote those

efforts and I'll use as an example of our handling of Ebola which in retrospect I think a lot of historians

would argue was one of the if not the most effective emergency public health intervention in history we we had to

create the architecture and the infrastructure and send our military in to create runways where the Chinese

could then land planes to deliver goods and we had to provide guarantees to the Europeans so that if they sent health

workers they could feel some assurance that they could be medevacked out if they got infected so so so I take great

pride in what the United States can do but if we're talking about climate change or global migration spurred on by

drought or famine or you know ethnic conflicts we're not gonna be able to solve those things by ourselves and as

you as you indicated don't some if we get an airborne pandemic unlike a slow-moving slow disease it's

difficult to transmit like Ebola if we haven't built ahead of time some some structures to deal with this millions of

people could be adversely impacted so so number one you have to start with the premise and believe that multilateral

institutions and efforts are important and you don't have to cede all your sovereignty or it doesn't make you less

patriotic to believe that you just have to have some sense and read so that's point number one point number two is

that in fact there are problems with existing multilateral institutions not surprisingly they were designed

post-world War two for the most part and they couldn't have anticipated everything that's happened there is

bureaucracy and inertia and resistance to reform so it is important for every country every leader to be honest about

the need for reform and not simply think narrowly about well I want to keep certain numbers of slots or votes or

this or that at least on many of the issues where there shouldn't be a big ideological

controversy look reforming the Security Council that's something that goes to core geopolitical interests and is a

huge difficult and perhaps unachievable goal any time soon on the other hand making sure that the WHL works well and

that we have a sufficient security trigger when a pandemic or something else happens that is achievable and it

shouldn't be controversial it's just a matter of digging in and getting the work done

what comes to girls education there may be cultural resistance in some places to

actually getting it done but generally speaking there's not a there aren't that many folks who will explicitly say I'm

sorry we don't want to educate our girls and women as a practical matter they may you may see that in in certain countries

but at the level of our multilateral institutions there should be a broad consensus and so what what I would hope

for is that we come up with concrete plans in those areas oftentimes with respect to the the sustainable

development goals our areas where there is a consensus on at least the aims if not always the means and think about how

can we improve delivery systems how can we improve their operations on a day to day basis but ultimately the last point

I would make that requires leaders to feel as if it matters and is important that in turn requires the public think

that it matters and is important because unfortunately what you discover is is that most politicians and elected

leaders are followers and not leaders they they're called leaders but most of the time they follow they they see what

do their constituencies care about and they respond and one of the biggest challenges that we've had is that and I

speak most intimately by the United States the general public responds with enormous generosity when they see a

specific story of a child who's hungry or somebody who's been stricken by you know a flood but when it comes to just a

general knowledge or interest in development funding not only the not know much but they oftentimes have a

negative reaction because their view is we've got a lot of needs here at home why are we sending money overseas sadly

it is one of the area's the only areas where Democrats and Republicans agree in this in the United States is on foreign

aid and repeatedly you've seen public opinion surveys where people wildly overestimate what we spend on foreign

aid they think 25 percent of the federal budget is going to foreign aid and helping people other than folks in their

towns and their communities so the need for public education in the ways we talked about that promote that that tell

a good story that point out that this is actually a bargain that connect what we do with respect to development to

security not in in a perfect correlation but to say that look if you've got failed States then generally some of

that's gonna spill over on us if you have economies that are failing ironically if you are concerned about

immigration and mass migration it's really a good investment to make countries work so that people can eat

because then it's not like they're dying to get on a dinghy and float across an ocean if the place the country were they

were born and they loved was functioning so so thinking about ways in which we describe this both as an economic

imperative a environmental imperative a security imperative the more we can influence public opinion the more you'll

see politicians respond that doesn't mean that there is not an enormous role to play for NGOs philanthropy and so

forth but and I've said this to both Bill and Melinda even with the incredible generosity and

enormous skill with which they've deployed their their resources over the years the u.s. budgets still bigger a

lot and you know you there's this notion that you can that I hear sometimes from young people that you can work around

government and work around politics because it's too messy or it's corrupt or it's you know I just don't like those

folks or what-have-you I'm sorry guys that's not gonna work if you want to get done what you're talking

about you will have to combine effective philanthropy and technical know-how and you know smart policy engineering with

getting your hands dirty trying to change public opinion and trying to ensure that the people who are in charge

of the levers of power are responsive and and that will require work and I guarantee you you will be disappointed

at points but what a glorious thing it is to be responsible for saving the world that's your responsibility that

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